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Count von Zeppelin, a retired German army officer, flew his first airship in These documents refer to a Zeppelin raid on Hull in June large numbers of aeroplanes, not just for reconnaissance, but as fighter air support and as bombers. After the war both Britain and Germany continued to develop airships for.

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Dowd, J. The Negro in American life. Duncan, G. Economic deprivation and early childhood development. Child Development , 65 , Farley, J. Majority-minority relations 4th ed. Foster, H.

Ebonics, standard English, and teacher preparation. Fox, S. The controversy over Ebonics. Phi Delta Kappan , 79 3 , Garner, C. Educational attainment: A multi-level analysis of the influences of pupil ability, family, school, and neighborhood CHN No. Gallagher, M. Proficiency testing and poverty: Looking within a large urban district. Getridge, C. Our story of Ebonics: A tale of language, literacy, and learning. School Administrator , 54 8 , Gonzales, A. With Aesop along the black border. Green, C. Ebonics as cultural resistance.

Peace Review , 9 4 , Gura, M. Fixated on Ebonics: Let's concentrate on the kids. Educational Leadership , 54 7 , Hall, P. The Ebonics debate: Are we speaking the same language? The Black Scholar , 27 2 , Harrison, J. Negro English. Anglia , 7 , Heath, S.

Ways with words: Language, life, and work in communities and classrooms. Hoover, M. A vindicationist perspective on the role of Ebonics and other aspects of ethnic studies in the university. American Behavioral Scientist , 34 2 , Ebonics: Myths and realities. Johnson, K. Teaching mainstream American English: Similarities and differences with speakers of Ebonics and speakers of foreign languages. Klebanov, P. Does neighborhood and family poverty affect mothers' parenting, mental health, and social support?

Journal of Marriage and the Family , 56 , Kuppersmidt, J. Childhood aggression and peer relations in the context of family and neighborhood factors. Child Development , 66 2 , Krapp, G. The English language in America. Labov, W. Coexistent systems in African-American vernacular English. Mufwene, J. Rickford, G. Baugh Eds. Lewis, O. La vida: A Puerto Rican family in the culture of poverty. Levine, D. Society and education 9th ed. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Linguistic society of America resolution on the Oakland Ebonics resolution.

Journal of English Linguistics , 26 2 , Lippi-Green, R. What we talk about when we talk about Ebonics: Why definitions matter.


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Malowe, J. Beyond Ebonics. American School Board Journal , 7 , David; Wiley, Terrence G.

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    Pages may include limited notes and highlighting. May include supplemental or companion materials if applicable. Access codes may or may not work. Connecting readers since Customer service is our top priority. From a linguistic perspective, there is no conclusive way to resolve the difference between what we consider languages and what we consider dialects.

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    One way to avoid the issue is to refer to both as 'varieties' of language. For the purposes of this discussion, the more salient point is that most varieties of language spoken by students have not been elevated to the status of school languages. In this country languages and dialects are usually considered mutually intelligible forms of a related language. For the Chinese, however, 'dialects' need not be orally mutually intelligible. So there is no absolute consensus on the difference between languages and dialects.

    Nevertheless, most children around the world enter schools in which there is some difference between the language variety they speak and the language of the school. Quite often, the language of the school is mutually intelligible with the language of the home, but many times it is not. When language differences between the child's and the school's language is acknowledged, consideration of those differences needs to be reflected in instructional and educational policies and instructional plans. Failure to do so merely stigmatizes children as being nonstandard or non-native.

    The choice of terms in referring to the language s or language varieties children bring from home to school is significant because the choice of terms ascribes a status to them. Despite the fact that dialect and vernacular, as linguists use them, are intended in a neutral or descriptive sense, in popular speech, dialect implies something less than standard that has a lower status.

    Expressions such as language varieties Hudson's sociolinguistics, have been offered as preferable ways to talk about the subject. In this discussion, the terms 'Standard English' and 'school English' will be taken as roughly equivalent. Normally, acquiring the language of home and community is not a problem.

    Children do this naturally and quite well in the interaction with their parents and local speech communities. There are far fewer languages that have been standardized as languages of literacy than are spoken. Moreover, there are far fewer languages that have been elevated to the status of school languages. The acquisition of literacy, however, does not always come as naturally.

    Literacy becomes a problem, however, when the language variety of the home and school differ. Quite frequently, not only the variety of the school and home differ, but so too do the ways in which language is used, as well as the purposes for which it is used. Thus, many children who come to school will be disadvantaged by the perception that they are deficient unless it is recognized that differences are quite natural.

    Unfortunately, because many educators view language varieties of the home and community as deficient, they do not believe that children should have a right to their own language Smitherman, For those educators, the idea that a child who speaks a minority language or a vernacular should have a right to instruction in his or her language is seen as a novel, if not a heretical notion. However, it is not really a new concept. In , the United Nations passed a resolution to that effect.

    Unfortunately, despite that resolution, the status of language rights around the world is very tenuous. The legal foundation for language rights is on a very shaky constitutional foundation Wiley, When language rights are discussed, the notion tends to be interpreted as meaning something different from freedom of speech — as if freedom of expression was conditional on the use of English.

    Unfortunately, even though organizations like the UN have taken positions on language rights, all too frequently nations do not act on them because these resolutions are not binding Skutnabb-Kangas, Currently in the USA, the majority of people speak English. Nevertheless, there are about 46 million people, according to the U.

    Census, who speak other languages. What is meant by 'some kind of English? First, English speakers are the second largest language group in the world right now, and English is the world's principal second language. In the early days of the Republic, Noah Webster did his best to make American English different from British English and to eradicate social and regional dialects Lepore, However, today, when one travel's around the USA or around the world in many countries, one finds many native speakers of English who sound and speak differently.

    There are many Englishes. If that word jumps out at you, do not be surprised because your spellchecker probably will not recognize it either unless you add it, even though there is even a periodical entitled the Journal of World Englishes, which is devoted to the study of the subject. Nevertheless, if one use the word 'Englishes' in a composition for a freshman English class, the transgression will usually get it circled with a red pen, unless there is considerable explanation for which one is using it.

    The notion of Standard English raises some technical issues. There is considerable consensus on what most of the features of the standard are as prescribed by notions of correctness, particularly as these have been conventionalized in written English.

    Deconstructing Ebonic Myths: The First Step in Establishing Effective Intervention Strategies

    However, in the USA, there is no English academy of experts as there is in some countries with the authority to define all of the characteristics of the standard. Authority is deferred to dictionary writers, prescriptive grammarians, or English teachers. However, even among these, there is no absolute consensus. When the so-called American English Standard is compared to the British, we quickly become aware of variations in spelling and pronunciation, as well as interpretations of minor points of grammar and punctuation. Just as there is more than one Standard English, so too there are many varieties of English — many Englishes.

    Despite their differences, these varieties are mutually intelligible. This flexibility of English has provided it with the power to spread around the world.

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    English then is something elastic — elastic enough to expand around the world and reflect local, regional, and social characteristics.