Technology Application 5. Technology Insight 5. Knowledge Management. Gathering Knowledge with Groupware. Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Retrieval. Creating a Knowledge Culture Technology Application 5.
Managing for Organizational Integrity
Reviews Questions. Systems Analysis. Controlling the Systems Development Process. Project Management. Quality Assurance. Involvement in Systems Development. Business Process Reengineering. Change Management. Systems Survey. Triggering Systems Development. Definition and Goals. Gather Facts. Perform Preliminary Feasibility Study.
Devise the Project Plan. Obtain Approvals. Structured Systems Analysis. Define Logical Specifications.
Design Alternative Physical Systems. Select the Best Alternative Physical System. Complete and Package the Systems Analysis Documentation. Appendix 6A.
Tools for Gathering and Analyzing Facts. Literature Review. Internal Presentation. Database and Files Review. Systems Design and Implementation. Systems Selection. Software and Hardware Acquisition Alternatives. Software Acquisition Alternatives Technology Excerpt 7. Technology Insight 7. Hardware Acquisition Alternatives. The Intermediate Steps in Systems Selection. Prepare Requests for Proposal Technology Insight 7.
Evaluate Vendor Proposals Technology Excerpt 7. Complete Configuration Plan. Introduction to Structured Systems Design. Specify Modules. Develop Implementation Plan and Budget. Develop Implementation Test Plan. Develop User Manual. Develop Training Program Technology Application 7. Complete Systems Design Document. Introduction to Systems Implementation. The Intermediate Steps in Systems Implementation.
Complete the Design. Acquire Hardware and Software Technology Excerpt 7. Select, Train, and Educate Personnel.
Managing for Organizational Integrity
Complete User Manual. Test System. Conduct Conversion. Systems Operation. The Post-Implementation Review. Systems Maintenance. Why do we need Control? Corporate Governance Technology Excerpt 8. Technology Insight 8. Defining Internal Control. A Working Definition of Internal Control. Ethical Considerations and the Control Environment.
Control Goals of the Operations Process. Control Goals of the Information Process. Control Plans. Introduction to Pervasive Controls. Planning and Organization Domain. Acquisition and Implementation. Delivery and Support. IT Process Monitor Operations. Review Qestions. The Control Framework. The Control Matrix. Steps in Preparing the Control Matrix. System Description and Flowchart. Applying the Control Framework. Controls Plans for Data Entry with Batches. Appendix 9A. Process Definition and Functions. Organizational Setting.
A Horizontal Perspective. Decision Making and Kinds of Decisions. Technology Excerpt Logical Data Flow Diagrams. Logical Data Descriptions. Management Reporting. Application of the Control Framework. Recommended Control Plans. Appendix 10A. Lower Level DFDs. Appendix 10B. Logical Database Design. Digital Image Processing Systems. Logical Process Description. Types of Billing Systems. Physical Process Description of the Billing Function.
Many integrity initiatives have structural features common to compliance-based initiatives: a code of conduct, training in relevant areas of law, mechanisms for reporting and investigating potential misconduct, and audits and controls to insure that laws and company standards are being met. In addition, if suitably designed, an integrity-based initiative can establish a foundation for seeking the legal benefits that are available under the sentencing guidelines should criminal wrongdoing occur.
There is no one right integrity strategy. Factors such as management personality, company history, culture, lines of business, and industry regulations must be taken into account when shaping an appropriate set of values and designing an implementation program. Still, several features are common to efforts that have achieved some success:.
Success in creating a climate for responsible and ethically sound behavior requires continuing effort and a considerable investment of time and resources. A glossy code of conduct, a high-ranking ethics officer, a training program, an annual ethics audit—these trappings of an ethics program do not necessarily add up to a responsible, law-abiding organization whose espoused values match its actions. But an integrity strategy is broader, deeper, and more demanding than a legal compliance initiative. Broader in that it seeks to enable responsible conduct. Deeper in that it cuts to the ethos and operating systems of the organization and its members, their guiding values and patterns of thought and action.
Above all, organizational ethics is seen as the work of management. Corporate counsel may play a role in the design and implementation of integrity strategies, but managers at all levels and across all functions are involved in the process.
During the past decade, a number of companies have undertaken integrity initiatives. They vary according to the ethical values focused on and the implementation approaches used. Some companies focus on the core values of integrity that reflect basic social obligations, such as respect for the rights of others, honesty, fair dealing, and obedience to the law.
Other companies emphasize aspirations—values that are ethically desirable but not necessarily morally obligatory—such as good service to customers, a commitment to diversity, and involvement in the community. When it comes to implementation, some companies begin with behavior. Other companies focus less on specific actions and more on developing attitudes, decision-making processes, and ways of thinking that reflect their values. The assumption is that personal commitment and appropriate decision processes will lead to right action.
Martin Marietta, NovaCare, and Wetherill Associates have implemented and lived with quite different integrity strategies. In each case, management has found that the initiative has made important and often unexpected contributions to competitiveness, work environment, and key relationships on which the company depends. Martin Marietta Corporation, the U. At the time, the defense industry was under attack for fraud and mismanagement, and Martin Marietta was under investigation for improper travel billings.
Managers knew they needed a better form of self-governance but were skeptical that an ethics program could influence behavior. The corporate general counsel played a pivotal role in promoting the program, and legal compliance was a critical objective. In its original conception, the program emphasized core values, such as honesty and fair play.
Over time, it expanded to encompass quality and environmental responsibility as well. Today the initiative consists of a code of conduct, an ethics training program, and procedures for reporting and investigating ethical concerns within the company. It also includes a system for disclosing violations of federal procurement law to the government. A corporate ethics office manages the program, and ethics representatives are stationed at major facilities. The audit and ethics committee of the board of directors oversees the steering committee. Its network of representatives serves as a sounding board, a source of guidance, and a channel for raising a range of issues, from allegations of wrongdoing to complaints about poor management, unfair supervision, and company policies and practices.
In , it investigated cases. The ethics office also works closely with the human resources, legal, audit, communications, and security functions to respond to employee concerns. Shortly after establishing the program, the company began its first round of ethics training for the entire workforce, starting with the CEO and senior executives. Now in its third round, training for senior executives focuses on decision making, the challenges of balancing multiple responsibilities, and compliance with laws and regulations critical to the company.
Ethical conduct and support for the ethics program are also criteria in regular performance reviews.
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Today top-level managers say the ethics program has helped the company avoid serious problems and become more responsive to its more than 90, employees. The ethics network, which tracks the number and types of cases and complaints, has served as an early warning system for poor management, quality and safety defects, racial and gender discrimination, environmental concerns, inaccurate and false records, and personnel grievances regarding salaries, promotions, and layoffs.
By providing an alternative channel for raising such concerns, Martin Marietta is able to take corrective action more quickly and with a lot less pain. In many cases, potentially embarrassing problems have been identified and dealt with before becoming a management crisis, a lawsuit, or a criminal investigation. Company executives are also convinced that the program has helped reduce the incidence of misconduct. When allegations of misconduct do surface, the company says it deals with them more openly.
On several occasions, for instance, Martin Marietta has voluntarily disclosed and made restitution to the government for misconduct involving potential violations of federal procurement laws.
ops.mkweb.ru/public/73.php In addition, when an employee alleged that the company had retaliated against him for voicing safety concerns about his plant on CBS news, top management commissioned an investigation by an outside law firm. Although failing to support the allegations, the investigation found that employees at the plant feared retaliation when raising health, safety, or environmental complaints. The company redoubled its efforts to identify and discipline those employees taking retaliatory action and stressed the desirability of an open work environment in its ethics training and company communications.
Although the ethics program helps Martin Marietta avoid certain types of litigation, it has occasionally led to other kinds of legal action. In a few cases, employees dismissed for violating the code of ethics sued Martin Marietta, arguing that the company had violated its own code by imposing unfair and excessive discipline. Still, the company believes that its attention to ethics has been worth it.
The ethics program has led to better relationships with the government, as well as to new business opportunities. By opening up communications, the company has reduced the time spent on redundant audits. Some managers compare their new ways of thinking about ethics to the way they understand quality. They consider more carefully how situations will be perceived by others, the possible long-term consequences of short-term thinking, and the need for continuous improvement.
Today employees think their number-one objective is to be thought of as decent people doing quality work. NovaCare Inc. But in , when the company was called InSpeech, the only sentiment shared was mutual mistrust. Senior executives built the company from a series of aggressive acquisitions over a brief period of time to take advantage of the expanding market for therapeutic services.
However, in , the viability of the company was in question. After months of soul-searching, InSpeech executives realized that the turnover rate was a symptom of a more basic problem: the lack of a common set of values and aspirations. CEO John Foster recognized the need for a common frame of reference and a common language to unify the diverse groups.
Based on the results, an employee task force drafted a proposed vision statement for the company, and another employees suggested revisions. The purpose—meeting the rehabilitation needs of patients through clinical leadership—is supported by four key beliefs: respect for the individual, service to the customer, pursuit of excellence, and commitment to personal integrity. Each value is discussed with examples of how it is manifested in the day-to-day activities and policies of the company, such as how to measure the quality of care.
To support the newly defined values, the company changed its name to NovaCare and introduced a number of structural and operational changes. Field managers and clinicians were given greater decision-making authority; clinicians were provided with additional resources to assist in the delivery of effective therapy; and a new management structure integrated the various therapies offered by the company.
At NovaCare, executives defined organizational values and introduced structural changes to support those values. The introduction of the vision, purpose, and beliefs met with varied reactions from employees, ranging from cool skepticism to open enthusiasm.
It gave us a goal that everyone aspired to, no matter what their place in the company. But, over time, managers became more adept at explaining and using them as a guide. It is implementable through technologies. It includes a functional architecture, a behavioral architecture, and a temporal architecture. Like any system definition process, the system analysis process is iterative. Each operation is carried out several times; each step improves the precision of analysis.
Identifier; name; description; amount; type development, production, utilization, maintenance, disposal ; confidence interval; period of reference; estimation technique. Key pitfalls and good practices related to system analysis are described in the next two sections. Some of the key pitfalls encountered in planning and performing system analysis are provided in Table 4. Processes for Engineering a System. Systems Engineering Handbook. Washington, D. Ring, J, H. Eisner, and M. Blanchard, B. Systems Engineering and Analysis , 5th ed.
Jump to: navigation , search. System Analysis. During engineering, assessments should be performed every time technical choices or decisions are made to determine compliance with system requirements. Categories : Part 3 Topic System Definition. Navigation menu Personal tools Log in. Namespaces Page Discussion. This page was last edited on 21 August , at Engineering, development tools equipment and software , project management, test-benches, mock-ups and prototypes, training, etc. Raw materials and supplying, spare parts and stock assets, necessary resources to operation water, electricity power, etc.
Expenses of structure subsidiaries, stores, workshops, distribution, information acquisition, etc. Taxes, installation customer , resources necessary to the operation of the product water, fuel, lubricants, etc. Field services, preventive maintenance, regulation controls, spare parts and stocks, cost of guarantee, etc.
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