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Count von Zeppelin, a retired German army officer, flew his first airship in These documents refer to a Zeppelin raid on Hull in June large numbers of aeroplanes, not just for reconnaissance, but as fighter air support and as bombers. After the war both Britain and Germany continued to develop airships for.

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Many villages do not have basic facilities like electricity, roads and safe drinking water, it notes. Losing track Governments in the Northeast frame policies to subvert community rights over forests. In many cases these policies benefit companies. Since , the Mizoram government has been implementing an ambitious programme of the Centre, Palm Oil Development Programme PODP , that aims to catapult India from being an importer of oil palm to being self-sufficient in the wonder crop.

After all, oil palm is in demand for everything, right from making vegetable oils and biodiesel to soaps and cosmetics. While several of the 12 states under PODP struggle to meet the annual targets of oil palm cultivation due to land scarcity and competition from other crops, Mizoram has managed to substantially expand the area under oil palm, at times beyond its annual targets.

Of the , hectares ha it plans to bring under the crop, it has already covered 19, ha.


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These tribes own and manage at least one-third of the 1. The Sixth Schedule of the Constitution that governs tribal areas in the Northeast is meant to protect their traditional practices. But the state holds jhum responsible for deforestation and land degradation and has been trying to end it since s. With PODP in hand, it has meticulously drafted a policy that will not only help curb jhum but promote oil palm.

High subsidies to oil palm under PODP make it lucrative than the other crops. By pushing oil palm plantations, Mizoram seems to be effectively abolishing the traditional community forestry management systems, which has been on the wane. Under the systems, the traditional village assembly identifies forest land around the village for jhum and allots it to families for a year. Size of the land depends on the need of the family and its capacity to cultivate.

This system ensures that no tribal remains landless. Under NLUP, the government undermines this traditional right of the village assembly and allots patta land title to individuals who take up permanent cultivation on jhum land. At the same time, the government is creating conducive business environment for palm oil companies. It gave these companies exclusive rights over seven of its eight districts for procuring oil palm from farmers at a fixed price and offered each of them Rs 2.

Studies show expansion of oil palm has resulted in social and economic changes in tropical countries, says Umesh Srinivasan of the National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bengaluru. Following an oil palm boom in Ghana in , many non-native farmers leased or purchased community lands by bribing customary chieftains. Community-owned lands in Papua New Guinea are also being sold to people who have no customary birthrights in the region, says Srinivasan. In Indonesia, he adds, conflicts emerged between communities and oil palm companies over unequal benefit sharing and uncertain land tenure.

Monoculture plantations like oil palm can destroy the biodiversity of a region, says Raman, who has studied jhum in Mizoram for a decade. Jhum, though causes temporary deforestation, does not affect the biodiversity as much. Oil palm may be economically rewarding but nobody takes into account ancillary services of jhum.

Farmers not only grow rice, maize, vegetables and fruits on jhum farms, they harvest bamboo, bamboo shoots and firewood from the patch during fallow period, Raman informs. Manipur, Arunachal toe the line In Manipur, 70 per cent of the forests are traditionally owned and managed by tribal communities. Under JFM, the forest department ropes in communities for forest management but retains it control over forest. Taking a step ahead, Arunachal Pradesh is drafting a law that empowers the forest department to bring almost any kind of land, including traditional community forests, under its control.

Traditional community forests account for 60 per cent of the 5. But just like Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh has categorised these forests as USFs and put them in the list of government-controlled forests. This will restrict activities of communities in their homeland.

It seems the government intends to bring every category of land under its control, says Sarin. The proposed law bars people from collecting forest produce from USFs. Since, most customary lands have been recorded as USFs, this will imply a major infringement of customary rights, she adds. But the state has been dragging its feet over implementing the Act. Last year, it informed the Union tribal affairs ministry that FRA does not have much relevance in the state because most of the forests belong to communities whose territories are identified by natural boundaries.

Such clarity is missing from the proposed forest law. Habitat Rights. Earlier on April 18, a Supreme Court bench hearing the petition filed by OMC to start the mining of bauxite in these hills, had asked the Odisha government to get clearances from 12 gram sabhas in the two districts of Rayagada and Kalahandi. The state government has made a fresh move to mine bauxite which is to be supplied to the Lanjigarh alumina refinery owned by Vedanta from the Niyamgiri hills in Kalahandi and Rayagada districts nearly three years after gram sabhas rejected the proposal.

Following the Supreme Court order, the gram sabhas unanimously reiterated their opposition to the mining. On May 6, a bench headed by Justice Ranjan Gogoi dismissed the petition saying OMC could approach appropriate fora against the decision of the gram sabhas. According to Bhubaneshwar-based activist, Prafulla Samantray, who has been closely associated with the movement, the judgement is a decisive victory for the Dongria Kondhs who have been opposing mining right from the beginning. Living in the dense sal forests of Maikal Hills, where streams intersect their homesteads, the Baigas in Dindori district of Madhya Pradesh have gained the right to their habitat.

This is for the first time habitat rights have been given under the Forest Rights Act of For the Baigas, it is a Pyrrhic victory that has come after a struggle for more than a century. Habitat rights go beyond the individual and community rights conferred under the Act. They aim to protect not just land rights and livelihoods of the people living in forests, but encompass their whole culture and way of life.

These are composite rights over larger landscapes covering multiple villages that recognise territories used by vulnerable tribes and pre-agricultural communities for habitations, livelihoods, social, spiritual, cultural and other purposes. Over the years, increasing state control over forests and diversion of forest land for development and conservation have seriously threatened these forest communities. Although gazette notifications dating back to provided the basis for giving habitat rights to the Baigas, the administration, activists, experts and community leaders were clueless about implementing such rights.

Even when the FRA enshrined this right in the law, in the absence of guidelines to implement these rights no one is sure of how to go about it. The definition of the habitat rights was incorporated through an amendment in the FRA in As per the amendment, the district level committee under the Act shall ensure that all PVTGs receive habitat rights, in consultation with the concerned traditional institutions of these groups, after filing claims before the gram sabha. Participatory exercises to help the Baigas claim habitat rights began in District Collector Chhavi Bhardwaj held the first meeting with activists and Baiga members to recognise the rights in November Tigers roam a large area in a forest when they hunt, one of the tribals pointed out, adding that when national parks are created that whole area becomes the habitat of the tiger, not just its dwelling, which could be a cave.

When the collector was convinced, a mapping exercise was undertaken in which villagers were asked to prepare their own maps. These maps were overlaid on the ones prepared with the help of GPS locators. Community members and activists allege that the forest department opposed the claims to habitat rights. After three years of research, consulta- tion and mapping, it was in November that the authorities began handing over legal titles. However, in selecting these villages the district administration relied on a notification passed by the British in The notification recognised seven villages in the region as having limited rights over the forest.

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This area was called Baiga Chak. Today the Baiga territory is spread over 52 villages in the Samnapur block of Dindori. This is still a small victory for the community. Historical accounts show the British were in desperate need of teak to build railways and ships, and the Baigas were resisting felling of trees. Shifting cultivation or bewar done by the Baigas was outlawed as one of the measures to drive them out of these villages, says Sharma. With the recognition of Baiga Chak, the community was allowed to practice bewar within the seven villages.

But the recognition was short-lived. By , the British government formed a new law related to transportation and collection of timber and forest produce, jeopardising the Baigas. Ironically, after participatory exercises for habitat rights, the administration has come to appreciate shifting cultivation that protected and enriched soil.

It involves mixed cropping of up to 18 varieties of grains, vegetables and mushrooms. Wrong twist in the right When distributing the land titles the Dindori administration told the people they are free to enjoy their ancestral rights over land and forest, and even State cannot transfer any of their land for non-community uses without their consent. However, people are not convinced. According to Dhurve, the forest department has other plans. A working plan of the department seen by Down To Earth shows that the Madhya Pradesh government plans a tiger heritage corridor focusing on wildlife tourism in an area km long and 80 km wide.

This will uproot not only the seven villages recently accorded habitat rights but also 45 others where Baigas coexist with other tribes like the Gonds.

The Grid and the Village: Losing Electricity, Finding Community, Surviving Disaster

The proposed corridor will span the buffer zones and tourism areas in Jabalpur, Dindori and Mandla districts. While forest officials were not available to comment on the status of habitat rights, Joshi says the district administration is yet to take any decision on the corridor. Lalla Singh, sarpanch of Ranjda village in the area, says 96 individual claims were settled in his village, while community forest rights have provided the village with Long way to go Dindori district officials say the granting of habitat rights is still in an experimental stage. Interpretation of habitat rights under the FRA varies in languages.

In case of habitat rights given to the Baigas, the Dindori administration used Section 3 i of the FRA, which, according to experts, is nothing but community forest rights. While the Union tribal affairs ministry has commissioned a study to gain clarity on these matters, the report is yet to be published. But the trickle has started. A couple of other tribal communities, such as the Sahariyas in Madhya Pradesh and the Kutia Kondh in Odisha, have taken their first steps to claim their habitats.

Threats to food security. I have noticed that conservation work in tribal India is most difficult in well-forested areas. When people have good forests, from which they can procure food, construction material, medicine and ingredients for fashioning their articles of utility baskets, mats and traps , they would want little else, especially from the state or the non-state organisations that tend to worry about them or the protection of their forests.

Much of this tribal indifference, which really is independence, to the various schemes inflicted upon them stems from the fact that they are able to find sufficient food in their forests. One often hears a forest guard or a road contractor complain that it is very difficult to get labour in tribal areas, where villages are full of people but nobody wants to work.

Some are exclusively famine foods leaves of celosia and bidens, usually regarded as weeds , some are seasonal bamboo shoots during monsoon , some are occasional bamboo seeds during the periodic flowering , some are collected routinely as a staple various yams and greens and some may be delicacies such as the larvae of Vespid wasps.

Wild foods are gathered from a variety of landscapes, including agricultural and pastoral, by a wide range of people not restricted to hunter-gatherer communities. A study by Zareen Bharucha and Jules Pretty, researchers in sustainable agriculture at the University of Essex published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, August , documented 90 to species in 22 countries in Africa and Asia.. Some of these foods can thrive in degraded environments.

Over-exploitation does not have any obvious negative impact such as weeds and rodent pests in an agricultural field , while some are sensitive to unregulated harvest. It is necessary to know how communities go about collecting wild foods: whether there are implicit regulations in their tradition; whether they recognise the space degraded lands, forests, swidden fallows, rice fields, sacred groves from which foods are gathered; whether there are any specific ways in which foods are processed or stored before consumption.

Two important factors in wild food foraging are the skills when and how certain fish and frogs are collected and the tools required to procure the food traps and specific fibres for ladders. People should also be able to identify food species correctly which is possible through a flow of knowledge between generations. When traditional knowledge is not passed down from one generation to the next, or when certain raw materials become scarce, the amount of wild food a community is able to gather and consume declines.

Incidences of anaemia, piles and diabetes across rural and tribal India are on the rise, indicating high levels of starch and lack of iron and roughage in their diets.

Wild food collection is a strategy among all sections of people, whichever ecological, economic or social zone they inhabit; these foods are especially important for the poorest households. Agro-ecosystems that have been simplified by monocultures have had the greatest impact on the poor; as agricultural systems change, the pressure on wild food availability increases.

In many areas across rural India, especially in Odisha, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh, vast tracts are now under cash crops. As corn is lumped together with other coarse grains sorghum, millet, barley , the increase in coarse grain production is due to the corn and not because of an increase in sorghum or millet production. In Bolangir district in Odisha, people in villages at the foot of the Gandhamardhan Hills, famed for its forest and medicinal plants, seldom went to dig yam earlier. But in one house, they had not eaten yams in four years.

There are few fish in the streams due to the run-off of pesticides used to grown cotton. A similar situation prevails in adjacent Bastar region in Chhattisgarh, where the predominant crop is corn. In some countries, the response to such change has been to domesticate some wild food species in house gardens or degraded lands near villages.

These hidden foods fill in the gaps in micronutrients, especially zinc, iron and various vitamins that are often missing or found in insufficient quantities in the staple foods of people. After the Green Revolution, which increased cereal crops in quantities large enough to have surpluses, there was also a simultaneous loss in diet diversity. Cereal-based diets were lower in zinc; there were shifts to higher pH soils; phosphorous-based fertilisers decreased zinc uptake and nitrogen-based fertilisers reduced the translocation of this essential metal from leaves to seeds.

The Green Revolution has also affected biodiversity as it focussed on finding high-yield varieties of only a few crops, essentially rice and wheat. As a result, there have been no productivity-enhancing technology as far as coarse grains are concerned. The response to emergencies, such as famines, has been to cut down on agricultural and biological diversity. Much of the mainstream research on agriculture as well as forestry still concentrates on cereal crops, timber or medicine; little attention is given to the bulk of plant and animal products harvested for food from lands and forests inhabited by indigenous communities.

In central India, a preliminary survey by this author noted about species of plants and animals used as food. Buy Now. Coverage includes electrical and mechanical components of wind power plants, and design, construction, and installation. This book evaluates the potential of high-temperature superconducting HTS power technologies to address existing problems with the U.

New technology permits the identification of a tropical depression and on-time monitoring as the hurricane develops. The greatest advance has occurred in the United States, but developing countries benefit greatly because of the effective warning mechanism. The computer models also generate vast quantities of information useful for planners in developing nations. Computer models that estimate tracking, landfall, and potential damage were first implemented in by the U.

They vary in capacity and methodology and occasionally result in conflicting predictions, though fewer than formerly. The NHC evaluates incoming data on all tropical storms and hurricanes in the Atlantic and eastern Pacific tropical cyclone basin and issues an official track and intensity forecast consisting of center positions and maximum one-minute wind speeds for 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. These results can be used in planning evacuation routes. A computerized model that assesses the long-term vulnerability of coastal areas to tropical cyclones has also been developed.

The file contains storm positions, maximum sustained winds, and central pressures unavailable for early years at six-hour intervals. When the user provides a location and the radius of interest, the model determines hurricane occurrences, dates, storm headings, maximum winds, and forward speeds.

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Vulnerability studies begin when the median occurrence date, direction distribution, distribution of maximum winds, probability of at least x number of hurricanes passing over n consecutive years, and gamma distribution of speeds are determined. Planners can use these objective return period calculations to evaluate an otherwise subjective situation. Reduction of Risk at the National Level One of the most important steps a country can take to mitigate the impact of hurricanes is to incorporate risk assessment and mitigation measure design into development planning.

The design of basic mitigation measures begins with the compilation of all historical records of former hurricane activity in the country, to determine the frequency and severity of past occurrences. Reliable meteorological data for each event, ranging from technical studies to newspaper reports, should be gathered.

With all the information in place, a study of 1 the distribution of occurrences for months of a year, 2 frequencies of wind strengths and direction, 3 frequencies of storm surges of various heights along different coastal sections, and 4 frequencies of river flooding and their spatial distribution should be undertaken. The statistical analysis should provide quantitative support for planning strategies. The design of mitigation measures should follow the statistical analysis and consider long-term effects.

Both non-structural and structural mitigation measures should be considered, taking into account the difficulties of implementation. Non-structural measures consist of policies and development practices that are designed to avoid risk, such as land use guidelines, forecasting and warning, and public awareness and education. Much credit for the reduction of casualties from hurricanes in the Caribbean should be given to the Pan Caribbean Disaster Preparedness and Prevention Project PCDPPP , which has worked effectively with national governments on motivating the population to take preventive measures, such as strengthening roof tie-downs, and on establishing forecasting and warning measures.

Structural mitigation measures include the development of building codes to control building design, methods, and materials. The construction of breakwaters, diversion channels, and storm surge gates and the establishment of tree lines are a few examples of mitigation from a public works standpoint. Reduction of Risk at the Local Level The effectiveness of national emergency preparedness offices of countries in the region is often seriously limited because of inadequate institutional support and a shortage of technical and financial resources.

In the smaller Caribbean islands, these offices are mostly one-person operations, with the person in charge responsible for many other non-emergency matters. It would be unrealistic to expect them to be able to act effectively at the local level in cases of area-wide emergencies, such as those caused by hurricanes. It is therefore essential to enhance the capacity of the population in small towns and villages to prepare for and respond to emergencies by their own means.

These activities have resulted in the preparation of a training manual with accompanying video for use by local leaders. This effort has focused on lifeline networks-transportation, communications, water, electricity, sanitation-and critical facilities related to the welfare of the inhabitants, such as hospitals and health centers, schools, police and fire stations, community facilities, and emergency shelters. The remainder of this chapter is dedicated to a summary overview of the process by which the leadership in a small town or village can introduce effective hazard mitigation.

Inventory of Lifeline Networks and Critical Facilities 2. Developing an Understanding of the Total Risk to the Community 6. Formulating a Mitigation Strategy.

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The degree to which local communities can survive damage and disruption from severe storms and hurricanes also depends to a large extent on how well the basic services and infrastructure, the common goods of the community, stand up to the wind and rain accompanying these storms. Whereas individual families bear full responsibility for preparing their own shelter to withstand the effects of storms, they have a much more limited role in ensuring that their common services are safeguarded, yet one that cannot be neglected.

Non-governmental agencies involved in low income housing construction and upgrading have developed practical and low cost measures for increasing the resistance of self-built houses to hurricane force winds. Typical of efforts of this nature is the work performed by the Construction Resource and Development Centre CRDC in Jamaica, which produced educational materials and organized workshops on house and roof reconstruction following Hurricane Gilbert.

The principal responsibility for introducing an awareness and concern in the community regarding the risk posed by hurricanes to the common good rests with the community leadership and local-or district-disaster coordinator, if such a function exists.

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It involves a lengthy process of identifying the issues, mobilizing resources from within the community and from outside, and building support for common action. Such a process consists of six steps: 1 making an inventory of lifeline networks and critical facilities; 2 learning the operation of these and their potential for disruption by a hurricane; 3 checking the vulnerability of the lifelines and critical facilities through field inspection and investigation; 4 establishing a positive working relationship with the agencies and companies that manage the infrastructure and services of the community; 5 developing an understanding of the total risk to the community; 6 formulating and implementing a mitigation strategy.

Inventory of Lifeline Networks and Critical Facilities Lifeline networks and critical facilities are those elements in the economic and social infrastructure that provide essential goods and services to the population in towns and villages. Their proper functioning is a direct concern of the community, since disruption affects the entire population.

The community leadership should gradually build up an inventory of these elements by locating them in a first instance on a large-scale map , or , of the community. The base maps can be obtained from the town and country departments or physical planning offices. The road network should indicate the road hierarchy highway, principal access to settlement, local streets and the location of bridges and other civil works such as major road cuts and retaining walls.

Similar treatment should be given to the electricity and telephone networks and the water system. Residential areas and areas of economic activity should also be identified. Various sources can be tapped to obtain this information. Water, electricity, and telecommunication companies can be called upon to draw their networks on the maps for the area in question. The local representative of the ministry of public works or physical planning office can assist with the identification of the road network and the location of public facilities housing important services.

Learning the Operation of Lifelines and Facilities and Their Potential for Disruption by Hurricane Community leaders should periodically organize brief sessions in which the engineers or managers responsible for the different lifelines and facilities can explain the workings of their systems to selected residents who may be involved in disaster preparedness and response. The maps that were prepared earlier should be helpful during these sessions, while at the same time particular details can be reviewed and updated.

The focus of these sessions should be: - Identification of the different elements that make up the system, their interaction, and their interdependency.

The Grid and the Village

Water system, with surface intakes, wells, pipelines, treatment plants, pumping stations, storage tanks or reservoirs, water mains, and distribution network. Electricity system, with generating plant, transmission lines, substations, transformers, and distribution network. Telecommunication, with ground station, exchanges, microwave transmission towers, aerial and underground cables, and open line distribution network. Sanitation system, with collector network, treatment plant and sewage fallout; public washrooms and toilet facilities; solid waste collection and disposal.

Fire stations, police stations, community centers, shelters, and other public buildings that house vital functions that play a role in emergencies. Checking the Vulnerability of the Lifelines and Facilities through Field Inspection and Investigation The vulnerability of buildings and infrastructure elements will be determined first of all by their location with respect to hazard-prone areas.

Storm surges and wave action can inflict severe damage in waterfront and low-lying coastal areas; heavy rains accompanying the hurricanes can cause flash flooding or riverine flooding along the river banks and in low-lying areas; rain can also cause land slippages and mudslides on steep slopes and unstable roadcuts; and structures in exposed areas such as ridges and bluffs are particularly vulnerable to wind damage. Hazard-prone areas should be systematically identified and located on the lifeline and critical facilities map, to show where lifeline networks and critical facilities may be especially vulnerable.

The next step consists of a visual inspection and observation of all important infrastructure elements and critical facilities. Details of location and construction that may affect vulnerability should be noted and recorded on a sheet, together with a brief description of the possible damage that may occur. Establishing a Positive Working Relationship with the Agencies and Companies that Manage the Infrastructure and Services of the Community Once the community leadership has collected a fair amount of information, a series of consultations should be organized with the engineers or managers responsible for each of the lifeline and critical facilities of the settlement, or with their local representatives, and further elaboration of the information collected thus far should take place.

Such consultations provide an opportunity for the community leadership to learn about the maintenance and emergency repair policies practiced in their settlements by the different agencies and utility companies, to get to know the officers responsible for carrying out emergency repairs, and to find out how to contact them under normal circumstances as well as in emergencies. Good contacts between agency representatives and community leadership are of great help in exploring the coincidence of interest between the residents on the one hand and the service agencies and companies on the other.

Through effectively managed participation by the residents in such tasks as monitoring the state of repair of the infrastructure or keeping drains clear, the community can receive better services at a lower cost to the agencies responsible. The actual hiring of workers or small firms from the settlement to execute some of the agencies' tasks should be encouraged wherever possible.

This is done through interviews with older residents in the community, retired public works officials familiar with the area, and other informants; by searching in old newspapers, and documents; and other means that may be appropriate in the particular setting. The information should be organized by event, and within each event by infrastructure element that was affected. Damage that resulted from that particular impact should be briefly described. An effort should be made to collect at least the following data: a.

The EVENT: - date of occurrence - duration - areas affected - measures of strength wind speed, height of flood waters - other characteristics that distinguish the event from others b. The particular ELEMENT that was affected: - class and type of element - physical characteristics - any information on what may have made the element vulnerable at that time-for example, poor state of repair or accumulated debris c.

The DAMAGE that was caused: - quantitative and qualitative description of direct physical damage - description of indirect damage, such as loss of function, interruption of service, loss of Jobs 5. Developing an Understanding of the Total Risk to the Community To be meaningful, the view of the risk posed by hurricanes to a settlement should include the perspective of the population and its economic activities.

In such an integrated view, vulnerability is obviously more than the sum of the technical deficiencies experienced by structures or equipment in the face of excessive natural forces. The traditional sectoral organization of the public system provides a poor basis for an integrated vulnerability analysis, since it tends to overlook the dependency and interaction between different infrastructure systems, which are often major determinants of the vulnerability of a society. The different pieces of information collected so far will have to be put together to create an understanding of the total risk to which the settlement can be subject, and of the variations of this risk within the settlement according to the location and vulnerability of specific elements of the infrastructure.

The following techniques have proved helpful in this exercise. The final number of maps depends on the scale of the base map and the complexity of the information. The school children benefited from safer, more operable buildings, while the community as a whole benefited from having safer hurricane shelters, a function which school buildings across the island automatically acquire during the hurricane season.

Some examples: - Avoid throwing garbage, especially large objects such as tires, tree branches, and appliances, into gullies and rivers. These tend to accumulate near bridges and culverts, forming obstacles to normal water flow. The maps will highlight where hazardous events can strike, who suffers the risks, what functions are threatened, where direct damage can be experienced, and what the level of risk is. These scenarios can be reviewed with various groups in the community. Discussion of the different scenarios creates the perfect background against which to start thinking about what the community can do to reduce the risk, which is after all the purpose of the exercise.

Formulating a Mitigation Strategy The formulation of a strategy to introduce appropriate mitigation measures that respond to the community's priorities is the culmination of all the efforts expended on the vulnerability analysis and risk assessment. It is important that the community leadership focus on identifying realistic mitigation measures and proposing a simple implementation strategy.

The common pitfall of identifying measures that require substantial funding should be avoided by concentrating on non-structural measures. Typical of the measures that should be emphasized are those that can be integrated into routine maintenance or upgrading of infrastructure; the avoidance of environmental degradation that can decrease the natural protective capacity of resources such as sand dunes, mangroves, and other natural vegetative coverage; and prevention by means of proper planning and design of new investments.

It is also important to establish the role of the different governmental levels and agencies in the country in the implementation of a mitigation strategy. The range of actions under the control of a small community is obviously quite limited, and depends on the degree of autonomy of the local government, the level of resources it controls, and the expertise it is able to mobilize. Bacon, P. Bender, S. Cambers, G. Vincent, St.

Lucia, Dominica, St. Caribbean Disaster News St. Commonwealth Science Council. Davenport, A. Earthscan Press Briefing Document no. Frank, N. Testimony before U. Goldberg, S. Jarrell, J. Topic 9. Landsberg, H. Mathur, M. Maul, G.